Statistics on Violence & Peace
Many of us have become inured to the presence of violence. Its ubiquity in the news and, for some of us, in our own neighborhoods has numbed us to the shock of this largely preventable condition. The following statistics offer a sobering reminder of the reality of the costs of violence–financial, human, physical and emotional. May we all remember that behind every statistic is a human being.
Mixed in are also some encouraging stats that speak to solutions. These are the kinds of programs and ideals we need to increase our collective investments in.
• Violence causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide every year. Violence is one of the leading causes of death in all parts of the world for persons ages 15 to 44. [Krug EG et al., eds. World report on violence and health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002. Via CDC]
• A World Heath Organization report estimates the cost of interpersonal violence in the U.S. at more than $300 billion per year. The cost to victims was estimated at more than $500 billion per year. Combined, this is the equivalent to nearly 10% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [The Economic Dimensions of Interpersonal Violence, World Health Organization, 2004]
• U.S. National violence containment costs are over $1.7 Trillion. [Global Peace Index, 2014 http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#page/indexes/global-peace-index/2014/USA/OVER]
• In the U.S., youth homicide rates are more than 10 times that of other leading industrialized nations, on par with the rates in developing countries and those experiencing rapid social and economic changes. The youth homicide rate in the U.S. stood at 11.0 per 100,000 compared to France (0.6 per 100 000), Germany (0.8 per 100 000), the United Kingdom (0.9 per 100 000) and Japan (0.4 per 100 000). [World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization 2002]
• Research has indicated that investing early to prevent conflicts from escalating into violent crises is, on average, 60 times more cost effective than intervening after violence erupts. [Based on research found in the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict’s The Cost of Conflict: Prevention and Cure in the Global Arena (Ed. Michael E. Brown and Richard N. Rosecrance, 1999)]
• On average, the cost of violence related only to paying for police, justice, corrections and the productivity effect of violent crime, homicide and robbery is $3,257 for each U.S. taxpayer or $460 billion for the United States economy. [2012 US Peace Index, Institute for Economics and Peace]
• The total cost of violence to the U.S. was conservatively calculated to be over $460 billion while the lost productivity from violence amounted to $318 billion. California was found to have the highest state burden of violence at over $22 billion per year while Vermont has the lowest at $188 million. For each state taxpayer, the total economic cost of violence varies greatly, from $7,166 per taxpayer in Washington D.C. to $1,281 for Maine taxpayers. [2012 US Peace Index, Institute for Economics and Peace]
• The world spends just $1 on conflict prevention for every $1,885 it spends on military budgets. Here in the U.S., less than 2% of income tax goes to civilian foreign affairs agencies; meanwhile, 39% goes to the military. And though taxpayers provide almost $1 billion per year for military academies, they pay only about $40 million for the United States Institute of Peace—the only U.S. agency dedicated to conflict prevention and peacebuilding. [Friends Committee on National Legislation report, Prevention is 60:1 Cost Effective, 2011]
Violence Containment Spending in the U.S.
Excerpts from report by Institute for Economics and Peace
Violence containment spending encompasses local, state, and federal government expenditure as well as private spending by corporations, households, and individuals. It includes medical expenses to recover from violence, incarceration, defense and military, insurance, alarm systems, the private security industry, homeland security, and the work of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
IEP research shows that in 2010, the Violence Containment Industry (VCI) accounted for $2.16 trillion, or around 15 percent of U.S. GDP. This figure is considered conservative due to the difficulties of accounting for all private and public sector spending.
When adding up the concrete costs to the average American taxpayer it is estimated that violence containment spending costs $7,000 for every man, woman and child each year. That is $6 billion a day in total, or $246 million an hour.
The federal government spends more than state or local authorities or the private sector on violence containment spending—over $1.3 trillion, or approximately 9 percent of GDP in 2010. This is more than the federal government spent on employee retirement and social security pensions and more than double what it spent on infrastructure in the same year.
Private sector spending on violence containment is conservatively estimated to be $605 billion. The remaining amount is spent by state and local governments on police, justice, corrections, and other security measures. These figures are likely to underestimate the final figure, as many items could not be counted.
• The 20th century was one of the most violent periods in human history. An estimated 191 million people lost their lives directly or indirectly as a result of conflict, and well over half of them were civilians. [World Health Organization: visit: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention (2002)].
• Terrorism is on the rise, with an almost fivefold increase in fatalities since 9/11, in spite of US-led efforts to combat it in the Middle East and elsewhere around the world. [2014 Global Terrorism Index]
• 2013 saw a 61% increase in the number of people killed in terrorist attacks. [2014 Global Terrorism Index]
• Since the 1960s, 83% of terrorist organizations that ended, ceased to operate due to policing or politicization. Only 7% ended due to military intervention. [2014 Global Terrorism Index]
• In the United States since Sept. 11, terrorist attacks by antigovernment, racist and other nonjihadist extremists have killed nearly twice as many people as those by Islamic jihadists. [New America Index]
• More Americans die in gun homicides and suicides every six months than have died in the last 25 years in every terrorist attack and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq combined. [Nicholas Kristoff, New York Times & icasualties.org]
• In 2005, 5,686 young people ages 10 to 24 were murdered–an average of 16 each day. [Youth Violence Facts at a Glance, Summer 2008, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)]
• More Americans have died from guns in the United States since 1968 than on battlefields of all the wars in American history. [Politifact.com]
• With less than 5 percent of the world’s population, the United States has nearly 25 percent – 2.3 million – of its prisoners. [San Francisco Chronicle, Norway, California: Contrast in criminal treatment Saturday, August 13, 2011]
• The United States incarcerates a higher proportion of African Americans than South Africa did at the height of apartheid. [Race, Crime and Punishment, Breaking the connection in America. Aspen Institute. http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs/Race-Crime-Punishment.pdf]
• Direct expenditures for corrections (i.e., prisons and jails) by local, state and federal governments between 1982 and 2005 increased 619 percent to $65 billion per year. [Direct Expenditures by Criminal Justice Function, 1982-2005, Bureau of Justice Statistics]
• American children are 14 times as likely to die from guns as children in other developed countries [Private Guns, Public Health, David Hemenway, University of Michigan Press]
• According to the Bureau of Justice, the number of people under some form of correction supervision in the U.S. grew from 200,000 people in 1980 to almost 7 million in 2014.
• More than 2.7 million children had a parent in jail or prison in 2009. That’s 3.6% of all kids in the U.S. population, up from 0.8% in 1980. Many of those kids develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. [Pew Charitable Trusts]
• The private prison industry has raked in tremendous profits. In 2011, the two largest private prison companies — Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) and GEO Group — made over $2.9 billion in revenue. [Justice Policy Institute Report]
• A 2011 analysis of 213 Social and Emotional Learning programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students published in the journal Child Development found that the participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes and behavior compared with a control group, as well as an 11-point gain in academic achievement percentiles. [Child Development, January/February 2011, Volume 82, Number 1, Pages 405-432]
• Up to 42% reduction in physical and verbal youth violence through Life Skills Training. [Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach. Prevention Science, (2006).]
• Meditation/mindfulness practices in schools have noticeable benefits. In one of the toughest schools in San Francisco, which implemented transcendental mediation practices called “Quiet Time.” saw suspensions decrease by 79 percent and attendance increased to over 98% as well as academic performance noticeably increased. [NBC Nightly News, January 2015 – see also http://cwae.org/media/SF_Chron_1-13-14-4.pdf].
• Mindfulness or Quiet Time practices in schools have shown to bring about a 40% reduction in psychological distress, including stress, anxiety and depression [American Journal of Hypertension 22(12): 1326-1331, 2009]
• According to a recent report on the economic benefit of evidence-based prevention programs, the Botvin LifeSkills Training (LST) program produced a $50 benefit for every $1 invested in terms of reduced corrections costs, welfare and social services burden, drug and mental health treatment; and increased employment and tax revenue. [Return on investment: Evidence-based options to improve statewide outcomes. October 2013 (Printed on 3-20-14). Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.]
• In a national sample of 148,189 sixth to twelfth graders, only 29% to 45% of surveyed students reported that they had social competencies such as empathy, decision making, and conflict resolution skills; and only 29% indicated that their school provided a caring, encouraging environment. [Benson, P. L. (2006). All kids are our kids: What communities must do to raise caring and responsible children and adolescents (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.]
• Research finds that Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) programs are frequently associated with positive student outcomes such as an increase in pro-social behaviors and improved academic performance. More than three-quarters of the teachers believe a larger focus on SEL will be a major benefit to students because of the positive effect on workforce readiness (87 percent), school attendance and graduation (80 percent), life success (87 percent), college preparation (78 percent), and academic success (75 percent).
• A Columbia University study examined the economic returns from investments in six prominent social and emotional learning interventions—from learning and literacy programs to combat aggression and violence; to efforts to promote positive thinking, actions, and self-concepts; to practices that improve problem-solving abilities, capacities to manage emotions, and the very skills that lead to greater student motivation and engagement in their learning. Their findings are striking: Each of the socially and emotionally focused programs—4R’s, Positive Action, Life Skills Training, Second Step, Responsive Classroom, and Social and Emotional Training (Sweden)—showed significant benefits that exceeded costs. In fact, the average among the six interventions showed that for every dollar invested, there is a return of more than 11 dollars. [The Economic Value of Social and Emotional Learning, February 2015, Center for Benefits-Cost Studies in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University]
• Washington State Life Skills Training programs in schools (Social and Emotional Learning) show that for a $30 per student cost, benefits are around $1290 — a $1260 value. At the national level, benefits are estimated to be $810 per student. [The Economic Value of Social and Emotional Learning, February 2015, Center for Benefits-Cost Studies in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University]
• More Americans die in gun homicides and suicides every six months than have died in the last 25 years in every terrorist attack and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq combined.
• A major study by the non-partisan Washington State Institute for Public Policy found that for every dollar spent on county juvenile detention systems, $1.98 of “benefits” was achieved in terms of reduced crime and costs of crime to taxpayers. By contrast, diversion and mentoring programs produced $3.36 of benefits for every dollar spent, aggression replacement training produced $10 of benefits for every dollar spent, and multi-systemic therapy produced $13 of benefits for every dollar spent. [The Juvenile Justice System in Washington State: Recommendations to Improve Cost-Effectiveness, 2002]
• After the Longmont Community Justice Partnership (in Longmont Colorado) implemented its Community Restorative Justice Program, recidivism rates among youth dropped to less than 10% in its first three years. [National Research Center’s Analysis of the Longmont Community Justice Partnership 2007-2009 http://www.lcjp.org/images/stories/pdf/LCJP_2007-2009_Report_Final.pdf]
• In West Philadephia High School, within two years of implementing a Restorative Discipline program, incidents of assault and disorderly conduct dropped more than 65%. [“Improving School Climate; Findings from Schools Implementing Restorative Practices” a report from the International Institute for Restorative Practices, 2009.]
• The state of Minnesota pays 236 times more to put a youth through the juvenile correction system than it does to offer early intervention services. [Youth Intervention Programs Association]
• 38 percent of women who are murdered are killed by their partners. [Global and Regional Estimates of Violence against Women. World Health Organization, 2013].
• Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10–24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. [CDC. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2013. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html.]
• 500 million people live in countries at risk of instability and conflict.
• When crises are mediated, agreements occur in 62% of the cases, compared to 27% of un-mediated cases. [Jonathan Wilkenfeld, Kathleen Young, David Quinn, Victor Asal. “Mediating International Crisis” University of Maryland, Department of Government and Politics, Routledge, London (2005)]
• The likelihood of a crisis being followed by tension reduction doubles when mediation occurs (44.28%), then when mediation does not occur (22.19%). [Kyle Beardsley, David Quinn, Bidisha Biswa, and Jonathan Wilkenfeld. “Mediation Styles and Crisis Outcome” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 50, N1 (Feb 2006)]
• Kenya’s leading business association assessed economic losses from post-election violence in 2008 as US $ 3.6 billion. In contrast, the 2010 constitutional referendum, plagued by similar inter-ethnic tensions, did not see any violence. A violence prevention effort identified and pre-empted nearly 150 incidents of violence. This effort cost only $ 5 million in comparison. [Infrastructure for Peace: A way forward to peaceful elections by Kai Frithjof Brand-Jacobsen and Paul van Tongeren; The Life & Peace Institute; 2012]
• Persons under the age of 25 accounted for 50 percent of those arrested for murder and 65 percent of those arrested for robbery in 2006. [Youth Violence Facts at a Glance, Summer 2008, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)]
• In 2007, approximately 14,000 terrorist incidents occurred worldwide, and deaths caused increased to 22,000 persons. [Report on Terrorist Incidents, 2007 (issued April 2008), National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)]
• At least 1 of every 4 incarcerated is mentally ill, 1 of every 5 with a serious condition. As many as 400,000 inmates held in the nation’s prisons and jails suffer from mental illnesses. Between 25% and 40% of all Americans with mental illness will at some point pass through the criminal justice system. Prisoners with mental illness cost the nation an average of nearly $9 billion a year. [The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill].
• One in six American women has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape, and 10% of sexual assault victims are men. [2004 National Crime Victimization Survey]
• Nonviolent resistance campaigns tend to succeed because nonviolent methods have a greater potential for eliciting mass participation — on average, they elicit about 11 times more participants than the average armed uprising — and because this is the source of major power shifts within the opponent regime. Mass participation that draws on diverse segments of society tends to empower and co-opt reformers while cutting off hard-liners from sources of support. When such participation is nonviolent, it increases the chances of pulling the regime’s support from the leadership, allowing security forces, economic elites and civilian bureaucrats to shift their loyalties with less fear of bloody retribution. [Washington Post: How the world is proving Martin Luther King right about nonviolence By Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan]
• In 2001, almost 21,000 homicides and 31,000 suicides occurred; and almost 1.8 million people were assaulted, while about 323,000 harmed themselves and were treated in hospital emergency departments. (Surveillance for Fatal and Nonfatal Injuries – 2001, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System)
• Worldwide, an estimated 1.6 million people lost their lives to violence in 2000. About half were suicides, one-third were homicides, and one-fifth were casualties of armed conflict. [World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization, 2002]
• Homicide was the second leading cause of death for people ages 10 to 24 in 2001. Suicide was the third leading cause of death for people ages 10 to 24 in 2002. [Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System – 2002, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]
• The health-related costs of rape, physical assault, stalking and homicide committed by intimate partners exceed $5.8 billion each year. Of that amount, nearly $4.1 billion are for direct medical and mental health care services, and nearly $1.8 billion are for the indirect costs of lost productivity or wages. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, April 2003.)
• A 1992 study in the United States put the annual cost of treating gunshot wounds at $126 billion. Cutting and stab wounds cost an additional $51 billion. (Miller TR, Cohen MA.,. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1997, 29:329–341.)
Corrections and Public Safety Information
(from the Pew Charitable Trusts website 2009)
Corrections costs have risen from $9 billion 25 years ago to over $65 billion today.
According to a report released in February, 2008 by the Pew Center on the States’ Public Safety Performance Project:
2,319,258 adults were held in American prisons or jails.
That’s one in every 99.1 men and women at the start of 2008.
U.S. Dept. of Justice data (2006):
1 in 30 men between the ages of 20 and 34 was behind bars.
1 in 9 for black males in that age group.
National recidivism rate remains virtually unchanged … about half of released inmates return to jail or prison within 3 years.
While violent criminals and other serious offenders account for some of the growth, many inmates are low-level offenders or people who have violated the terms of the probation or parole.
During the last 20 years states’ spending on corrections jumped 315%.
• There are nearly 12 million local jail admissions every year – almost 20 times the number of prison admissions, and equivalent to the populations of Los Angeles and New York City combined. [http://www.macfound.org/press/publications/assessing-jail-use-america/]
• From 1982 to 2011, cumulative expenditures related to building and running jails increased nearly 235 percent. Local jurisdictions now spend $22.2 billion annually on correctional institutions.
• Seventeen percent of high school girls have been abused physically; twelve percent of high school girls have been abused sexually. (The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse Among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2003)
• About 1 in 3 high school students say they have been in a physical fight in the past year, and about 1 in 8 of those students required medical attention for their injuries. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth risk behavior surveillance – United States, 2001. In: CDC Surveillance Summaries, June 28, 2002. MMWR, 51(SS-4), p. 5.)
• In the United States, some 31,000 gangs were operating in 1996 in about 4800 cities and towns. [World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization 2002]
• Over 70 percent of School Resource Officers surveyed felt that aggressive behavior in elementary school children has increased in their districts in the past five years. (2003 NASRO School Resource Officer Survey, National Association of School Resource Officers)
• Of children in sixth through tenth grade, more than 3.2 million-nearly one in six-are victims of bullying each year, while 3.7 million bully other children. (“Bullying Prevention is Crime Prevention,” Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 2003)
• Nearly 60 percent of boys who researchers classified as bullies in grades six through nine were convicted of at least one crime by the age of 24. Even more dramatic, 40 percent of them had three or more convictions by age 24. (“Bullying Prevention is Crime Prevention,” Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 2003)
• A significant number of School Resource Officers (SROs) reported budget cuts for school safety funding in their local school districts, inadequacies in federal school safety funding, and the need for an “Education Homeland Security Act” to fund school terrorism training, improve security and crisis planning, and support SRO programs. (2003 NASRO School Resource Officer Survey, National Association of School Resource Officers)
• A study on the cost-effectiveness of early intervention to prevent serious crime in California, showed that training for parents whose children exhibited aggressive behavior was estimated to have prevented 157 serious crimes (such as homicide, rape, arson and robbery) for every $1 million spent. In fact, training in parenting skills was estimated to be about three times as cost-effective as the so-called ‘‘three-strikes’’ law in California. [Greenwood PW et al. Diverting children from a life of crime: measuring costs and benefits. Rand, 1996.]
• Domestic Violence is the single greatest cause of injury to women. [Journal of Amer. Med. Assoc.]
• In 2005, there were 191,670 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the 2005 National Crime Victimization Survey
• 22% of women in the U.S. have reported being physically assaulted by an intimate partner. [Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, 1999 (Population Reports, Series L, No. 11)]
• In the year 2001, more than half a million American women (588,490 women) were victims of nonfatal violence committed by an intimate partner. (Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001, February 2003)
• In 2001, 41,740 women were victims of rape/sexual assault committed by an intimate partner. (Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001, February 2003.)
• As many as 324,000 women each year experience intimate partner violence during their pregnancy. (Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Spitz AM, Goodwin MM, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. “Violence and reproductive health; current knowledge and future research directions.” Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000;4(2):79-84.)
• The World Health Organization declared that violence is a leading worldwide public health problem. [World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization 2002]
• 37% of women treated in emergency rooms for violent injuries were hurt by a current or former partner. [“Violence Related Injuries Treated in Hospitals.” US Dept. of Justice, August 1997]
• 44 – Percentage of women murdered by an intimate partner who vistied an emergency room in the two years prior to their deaths. [“Predicting Future Among Women in Abusive Relationships.” The Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection and Critical Care, 2004.]
• A 1992 study estimates that direct and indirect costs of gunshot wounds $126 Billion. Cutting and stab wounds cost an additional $51 billion. [Accident, Analysis and Prevention, 1997, 29:329–341.]
• Nearly 16 children a day died in 1997 as a result of a firearms homicide, suicide or unintentional shooting. [Children’s Defense Fund, 1998]
• Handguns are used in 80 percent of homicides, nearly 70 percent of suicides and nearly all accidental shootings. [Prevention First]
• Between 1986 and 1992, the total number of children killed by firearms rose by 144 percent. [National Campaign to Reduce Youth Violence]
• From 1985 to 1993, murders committed by people over age 25 dropped 20 percent; but they increased 65 percent among 18- to 24-year-olds and increased 165 percent among 14- to 17-year-olds. [Northeastern University’s College of Criminal Justice]
• From 1985 to 1992, the homicide rate for 16-year-olds increased 138%, while the rate among 18-year-olds doubled, and the rate for 24-year-olds and above either remained the same or declined. [National Institute of Justice Research Preview, 1995]
• $48,000,000 – Amount by which federal family violence prevention services program were under funded in 2005. [Campaign for funding to end violence againt women. FY Budget Briefing Book. www.ncadv.org/files/compiledbriefingbookandchartsfy06.pdf]
• Children in adult jails commit suicide eight times as often as their counterparts in juvenile facilities. In addition, children in adult facilities are five times more likely to be sexually assaulted, and twice as likely to be beaten by jail staff. [Children’s Defense Fund, 1998]
• Annual rates of firearm homicides for youths age 15-19 increased 155% between 1989 and 1994. [National Summary of Injury Mortality Data, 1987-1994; National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 1996]
• In the United States, some 31,000 gangs were operating in 1996 in about 4800 cities and towns. [World Report on Violence and Health, World Health Organization 2002]
• Large cities claim that 72% of their school violence is attributable in part to gang activity. [National League of Cities 1994 survey of 700 U.S. cities]
• In Los Angeles County between 1981 and 1992, 15,000 people died of AIDS, but 22,000 died as a result of homicide. [Los Angeles Department of Health Services]
• In Los Angeles County between 1981 and 1992, a child between five and nine was slain, on average, every eight and a half days. [Los Angeles Department of Health Services]
• In Los Angeles County, the use of semiautomatic handguns in gang-related killings has more than quadrupled, to more than 40 percent. [Los Angeles Department of Health Services]
• In 1992, handguns killed 33 people in Great Britain, 36 in Sweden, 97 in Switzerland, 60 in Japan, 13 in Australia, 128 in Canada, and 13,200 in the United States. [Handgun Control Inc., cited in The Washington Post, 1998]
(sources not secure)
– every 15 seconds a women in U.S. is beaten by current or former husband or intimate partner
-30% of female murder victims are killed by intimate partners.
-A woman is battered every 13 seconds
-Between 2 & 4 million women abused annually
-1,500 – 2,000 women are murdered each year by current or former partners(FBI)
-2/3 of men who beat their wives also abuse their children (stark & fitcraft)
-1/3 of all teenagers report having experienced violence in a dating relationship
-4 million women are victims of severe assaults by boyfriends & husbands each year.
-1 in 4 are likely to be abused by a partner in her lifetime (sara glazer,”violence against women,” CQ reseacher congressional quarterly inc.vol13,no.8 feb 1998.p.171.)
-Females are victims of family violence at a rate of 3 times that of males (bureau of justice stats.hglghts from 20 yrs. Of surveying crime victims wash.dc.us dept of justice 1993 p25)
-30% of female murders in 1992 were by husbands or boyfriends (U.C.R.FBI 1993.p.16)
-Battered women increase risk of being murdered when they try to escape (NYC dept of health)
-81% of men who batter had fathers who abused their mothers (n.j. dept. of community affairs divison of women)
-1500 American women are murdered by husbands or boyfriends each year (FBI UCS.1996)
1996-97 School violence reported:
4,170 rape or sexual battery
10,950 physical attack or fight w/weapon 98,490
vandalism 115,500 theft larceny
Source: U.S. dept of ed. National center for edu. Stats
College Campus in U.S. crime stats. National center for education stats.
1996-97 School year
50 states reported expelling an estimated 6,093 of the 46 million public students for bringing a firearm to school.
April 1 1945 – Aug.15 1945
4.5 months of battle
provided by the 96th RSC affairs office (801) 656 4133
Rapes per year